Think of a refrigerator that has multiple shelves that can be used for storing various items. These shelves help you organize the grocery items by shape, size, type, etc. The same concept applies to a filesystem, which is the embodiment of a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collections of data in a human-usable form….
Partitions and Filesystems
A partition is a logical part of the disk, whereas a filesystem is a method of storing/finding files on a hard disk (usually in a partition). By way of analogy, you can think of filesystems as being like family trees that show descendants and their relationships, while the partitions are like different families (each of which has its own tree)…MORE (networkforgeek.com)